Foreign Market Entry
There are different ways in which a company can enter a foreign market. No one market entry strategy works for all international markets. Direct exporting may be the most appropriate strategy in one market while in another you may need to set up a joint venture and in another you may well license your manufacturing. There are a number of factors that influence your choice of strategy, including, but not limited to, tariff rates, the degree of adaptation of your product required, marketing and transportation costs. While these factors may well increase your costs it is expected the increase in sales will offset these costs. The following strategies are some of the main options that are open to you.
Direct exporting is selling directly into the market you have chosen using your own resources. Many companies, once they have established a sales program turn to agents and/or distributors to represent them further in that market. Agents and distributors work closely with you in representing your interests. They become the face of your company and thus it is important that your choice of agents and distributors is handled in much the same way you would hire a key staff person.
Partnering is almost a necessity when entering foreign markets and in some parts of the world (e.g. Middle East) it may be required. Partnering can take a variety of forms from a simple co-marketing arrangement to a sophisticated strategic alliance for manufacturing. Partnering is a particularly useful strategy in those markets where the culture, both business and social, is substantively different than your own as local partners bring local market knowledge, contacts and if chosen wisely customers.
Joint ventures are a particular form of partnership that involves the creation of a third independently managed company. It is the 1+1=3 process. Two companies come together in a particular market, either geographic or product, and create a third company to undertake this. Risks and profits are normally shared equally.
Buying an existing Company
In some markets buying an existing local company may be the most appropriate entry strategy. This may be because the company has substantial market share, are a direct competitor to you or due to government regulations this is the only option for your firm to enter the market. It is certainly the most costly and determining the true value of a firm in a foreign market will require substantial due diligence. On the plus side this entry strategy will immediately provide you the status of being a local company and you will receive the benefits of local market knowledge, an established customer base and be treated by the local government as a local firm.
Franchising is the usual process for rapid market expansion. Franchising works well for firms that have a repeatable business model (eg. food outlets) that can be easily transferred into other markets. Two caveats are required when considering using the franchise model. The first is that your business model should either be very unique or have strong brand recognition that can be utilized internationally and secondly you may be creating your future competition in your franchisee
Turnkey projects are particular to companies that provide services such as environmental consulting, architecture, construction and engineering. A turnkey project is where the facility is built from the ground up and turned over to the client ready to go – turn the key and the plant is operational. This is a very good way to enter foreign markets as the client is normally a government and often the project is being financed by an international financial agency such as the World Bank so the risk of not being paid is eliminated.
Greenfield investments require the greatest involvement in international business. A Greenfield investment is where you buy the land, build the facility and operate the business on an ongoing basis in a foreign market. It is certainly the most costly and holds the highest risk but some markets may require you to undertake the cost and risk due to government regulations, transportation costs, and the ability to access technology or skilled labour.